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National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) is a standardized imagery file format maintained by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA). The full specification for NITF is available here.

Umbra uses NITF to embed complex data (i.e. data containing phase information) according to the SICD metadata standard. 

Data Structure
NITF files are composed of a header and segments. The header describes the structure and content of the file and enumerates the segments. Each segment contains its own sub-header and data fields. 

We recommend downloading the full specification and familiarizing yourself with it if you are unfamiliar with NITF.